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ANALYSIS AND INFORMATION ON
FAMILY PLANNING
COMMUNICATIONS

WITH FOCUS ON THE PHILIPPINE CASE

Prepared by the PhilFam Committee
17 February 1997


CONTENTS
EVOLUTION OF WARFARE AND ABUSE OF THE DOCTRINE OF NATIONAL SECURITY
THE OPERATIONS RESEARCH OFFICE (ORO)
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STRATEGY BOARD (PSB)
MARKET RESEARCH, ADVERTISING, & SOCIO-ECONOMIC PLOYS
NSSM 200 & NSDM 314: GLOBAL DEPOPULATION IN THE 1970s & 1980s
"IEC" & "AWARENESS RAISING"
JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR COMMUNICATION PROGRAMS
1993 PHILIPPINE NATIONAL COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN (NCC-93)
COVERT RESOURCES IN AID OF DEMOGRAPHIC WAR
1996 PHILIPPINE NATIONAL COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN (NCC-96)
THE "PROFIT PROJECT": FUND SOURCING FROM "BLOCKED ASSETS"




EVOLUTION OF WARFARE AND ABUSE OF THE DOCTRINE OF NATIONAL SECURITY. National Security is a morally valid undertaking, but only when taken in the context of self-defense.1   But in a world of greed that has come to justify cut-throat competitiveness (following the tenets of economic liberalism) and has upheld the principle of "survival of the fittest" (according to social Darwinism), mankind has gone through many sad experiences of selfish aggression, which are amply recounted in the history of warfare and tyranny. The dictum that aggressors love to abuse is: "The best defense is offense". Thus, modern governments have tended to abuse "national security" and "national defense" as the lame justifications for inflicting violence on other peoples and even among their own citizens.2  

          A quick review of recent history can lead us to understand how the concepts of national security, national defense, and other related ideas in traditional politics have evolved. It is in our century that military science has moved swiftly from conventional to unconventional models; unconventional warfare has itself taken on various forms, then advancing to a phase of psychological warfare, until today when the old patterns of "UW" are hardly discernible: the military model has become "civilianized", thanks to the social psychologies developed by Kurt Lewin,3 Edward Tolman,4 and above all, Brigadier General John Rawlings Rees the British mastermind who developed the Tavistock school of psychological warfare.5   What we are witnessing is a reversion from the hard-boiled, rigid Prussian doctrines of Karl von Clausewitz, back to the more supple but equally effective oriental wisdom of Sun Tzu. Von Clausewitz wrote: "War is an act of force to compel our adversary to do our will. Force, to meet force, arms itself with the inventions of art and science." 6   Sun Tzu, on the other hand, wrote: "To fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy's resistance without fighting. In the practical art of war, the best thing of all is to take the enemy's country whole and intact; to shatter and destroy it is not so good."7   Clearly, Sun Tzu's approach is more adaptive to the Third Wave era.8   It is certainly the doctrine of choice among population warriors. Professor Jacqueline Kasun in her book "The War Against Population" 9   uses war as a figure of speech or a metaphor, perhaps not knowing how absolutely correct she really was: global population control does in fact fit the parameters of military doctrine.

Today's "Demographic War" is being waged in a manner never before conceived in the annals of warfare and human domination. Little have we noticed it, but over the last three decades, military science has been rapidly overshadowed and reshaped by social psychology -- a pure science which, when applied, would constitute the theoretical base for social engineering.10   Who could have thought that the basic weapon could -- over a span of 25 post-World War II years -- evolve from the M1-Garand to Group Dynamics?11   That bullets and artillery shells would be replaced by pills and syringes? That field maneuvers would be superseded by lobbying and "PR"? That combat intelligence units would be replaced by market research and environmental scanning groups? That field marshals and their staffs would be superseded by "spin doctors" and their PR companies?

The history of wars and of colonialism has demonstrated that there are three ultimate aims for waging wars of aggression:
(1)
(2)
(3)
expansion of wealth;
annexation of territory;
augmentation of subjects (women & slaves)
> capital
> land
> labor
In a word, the goal of aggressive war is the extension of or access to resources: financial, commercial, natural, and human.12   It is worthwhile noting that while the aggressors take a basically impersonalized view of his 'enemy' (eg, as trophies or spoils), defenders need not view aggressors in the same manner. The strategy of the aggressor is to minimize the enemy's control of resources by reducing their combatants, their influence, their consumption, and if necessary, their number. In the social Darwinist mind of the dedicated population warfare aggressor, there is no distinction between combatant and non-combatant -- the latter simply does not exist.13


THE OPERATIONS RESEARCH OFFICE (ORO). In 1948, the US Government established an elite academic unit called the "Operations Research Office" to do the theoretical background work and social science research that would become the backbone of the US psychological operations policies. The "ORO" was run by the by the Johns Hopkins University under contract with the US Army, in Baltimore, Maryland.14  

In the context of the Cold War, psychological warfare was defined by ORO as a form of propaganda to confuse and demoralize enemy populations. "Psywar" is:

 

the planned use of propaganda and other actions designed to influence the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of enemy, neutral, and friendly foreign groups in such a way as to support the accomplishment of national aims and objectives. 15
Particularly during the Cold War era, psywar became indispensable for counter-insurgency operations.16   Associated with it was "brainwashing", which was -- and still is -- the preferred method in authoritarian environments.17


THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STRATEGY BOARD (PSB). Psychological operations are basically more of a political rather than military activity. But when it is carried out as a "broad-based" campaign, it becomes an economic, and cultural operation also. On 17 August 1950, the U.S. State Department established a National Psychological Strategy Board to coordinate its propaganda and psychological warfare efforts in the "cold war" with the Soviet Union. On 20 June 1951, President Truman created the Psychological Strategy Board to handle American psychological warfare -- propaganda, economic, and political activities -- abroad. The Board was first directed by former Secretary of the Army and University of North Carolina president Gordon Gray.

The PSB was one of many cold war attempts to use psychological research to promote political goals. The Board consisted of selected top officials of the Department of State, the Defense Department, and the Central Intelligence Agency. The PSB made recommendations and decisions, determined policies, and evaluated the psychological warfare activities of the US Government.


MARKET RESEARCH, ADVERTISING, & SOCIO-ECONOMIC PLOYS. Today, numerous forms of non-military, non-partisan propaganda have become stably institutionalized. Advertising, for example, has been regarded as propaganda, since various techniques used in advertising resemble those used by propagandists. Indeed, they branch out from the same root: Behavioral Psychology. Information on consumer sentiments toward various products, the most appealing packaging of products, and the response of consumers to different types of sales and advertising techniques is obtained through market research. The information is then used to mount advertising campaigns aimed at increasing product sales by making one-sided appeals to consumer preferences.18   Another buzzword is "image engineering" -- the scientific way to make a client look good. Marketing, advertising and PR practitioners themselves admit that they often find themselves at the edge of deception -- if not over it.

A classic example of a psychological maneuver in economic warfare is the so-called US "trade deficit" of the late 1980s. The anguish about the "enormous" US trade deficit abounded, but it was by no means clear that the US actually had a deficit with Japan or with the rest of the world. Much of the alarm was being raised in order to invoke protectionism, the real threat to the global economy.19   The "deficit" was arrived at by entering only goods and tangibles passing through ports of entry -- excluding intangible services and sales operations of TNCs and profits of US citizens' doing business with the rest of the world. Another example of the psywar ploy was the allegation that Japan was buying off US economic assets. The fact is that it is the British, Canadians, Germans and French who are buying off US companies ahead of the Japanese. The average American actually thinks Japan has a bigger economy than the US.20   A side-effect of the undue pessimism wrought by these allegations played up in media is the negative opinion and clampdown against immigration from poor countries. These grandiose top-level ploys and tactical games are based on an old trick: "playing possum".

Interestingly, the social marketing strategy for contraception in the Philippines is deliberately patterned after Coca-Cola. Dr Eduardo L Roberto, of the Coca-Cola Foundation is the marketing consultant of the Population Commission. He is professor of international marketing at the Asian Institute of Management.21  


NSSM 200 & NSDM 314: GLOBAL DEPOPULATION IN THE 1970s & 1980s. In discussing demographic warfare and its prominently psychological nature, we must not underestimate the significance of NSSM 200,22 since it is the strategy and the most influential plan that had governed global depopulation for two decades. The psychological and political aspects of the plan still influences entire sectors of societies the world over, primarily the government, media, and academic sectors. Although the population control activities of the US government are inextricably intertwined with UN agencies, its impact on global culture and social change is far greater than that of the UN. This is because the UN as a global body itself depends on the rich nations for its budgets and finances, and it has no compelling legal force on its member nations. The US, on the other hand, has an established track record of geo-political armtwisting and intervention, polished through its Cold War engagement. In the words of NSSM 200:

 

The World Population Plan of Action is not self-enforcing and will require vigorous efforts by interested countries, UN agencies and other international bodies to make it effective. US leadership is essential.23  

Furthermore, NSSM 200 cautioned that the US population agenda should remain hidden, and that more subtle forms of action -- the co-opting and undermining of LDC24 leaders -- should be taken:

 

        While some have argued for use of explicit "leverage" to "force" better population programs on LDC governments, there are several practical constraints on our efforts to achieve program improvements. Attempts to use "leverage" for far less sensitive issues have generally caused political frictions and often backfired. ... There is also the danger that some LDC leaders will see developed country pressures for family planning as a form of economic or racial imperialism; this could well create a serious backlash.

        Short of "leverage", there are many opportunities, bilaterally and multilaterally, for US representations to discuss and urge the need for stronger family planning programs.25   ...

        It is vital that the effort to develop and strengthen a commitment on the part of LDC leaders not be seen by them as an industrialized country policy to keep their strength down or to reserve resources for use by the "rich" countries. ... The "political" leadership role in developing countries should, of course, be taken whenever possible, by their own leaders. 26


"IEC" & "AWARENESS RAISING". Today, the thin line which used to divide military/paramilitary from civilian psychological operations has virtually disappeared. The covert "swash-bucklers" of the Cold War era are giving way to a new breed of mercenary -- the nerds and communication wizards of the millennial interregnum. It is they who have developed propaganda into the fine bloodless art called "Information, Education, Communication / Motivation" or "IEC/M".27   This is the code name denoting the basic psychological maneuvers in demographic warfare. There are other euphemisms, such as: social marketing, awareness creation/raising, population education, population communications, clearinghouse and exchange functions, demographic training, and, of course, family planning.

Today's social scientists who began their intellectual pursuits subsisting on the Darwinian staple and planned parenthood diets have -- not surprisingly -- arrived at a tacit consensus about how to deal with less developed countries: nothing less than intervention. Noting how in rich countries, population control was achieved "on a voluntary basis, often against the wishes and efforts of government", in developing countries, social changes "will not occur fast enough without more direct intervention by governments.28   Thus, on a global scale, the aim of IEC/M is to build social cohesiveness toward depopulation by developing social norms and exerting social pressures and by rewarding conformity to and rejecting or punishing deviance from the norms. This is Group Dynamics applied on institutional, national, and eventually global scales.


JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR COMMUNICATION PROGRAMS. The acknowledged pioneer and leader in state-of-the-art population "psyops" is Johns Hopkins University, the original laboratory for US psywar development studies. The expertise developed by the JHU/US Army's "ORO" program was masterfully intertwined and transferred to the JHU School of Hygiene and Public Health, which offered a degree on Public Health Communications.29   The crown of JHU's population propaganda institutions is the Center for Communication Programs (JHU-CCP), founded in 1988 by Phyllis Tilson Piotrow,30   who is presently the Center's Director. The CCP was instituted as part of the Department of Population Dynamics at the JHU School of Hygiene and Public Health.

From whatever angle it is examined, the JHU-CCP is exclusively aimed at population control. It works with many international agencies, foundations and NGOs both in the US and overseas to promote "healthy behavior". The principal allies of CCP are USAID, UNFPA, UNICEF, the World Bank, Rockefeller Foundation, Packard Foundation, Cowell Foundation, Public Welfare Foundation, and other private foundations and donors.31  

The two major components of JHU-CCP are Population Communication Services (PCS) and Population Information Program (PIP). PCS offers technical assistance to five global regions: Newly Independent States (NIS), Near East, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It provides training and financial support to partners in more than 65 countries, helping them develop and evaluate effective information, education, and communication and motivation (IEC/M) programs promoting family planning, reproductive health, and related activities.

JHU's many involvements in population IEC/M is dedicated to "changing mentalities and sexual behaviors" all over the world in favor of depopulation through birth control. To accomplish this globally, JHU-CCP formulates what it calls "National Communication Campaigns" (NCCs) specially designed for each country. CCP Deputy Director Jose G Rimon, Jr, and Training Division Chief Benjamin V Lozare,32 are both Filipinos. The resident advisor to the Philippines is Patrick L Coleman, who since 1992 has been reconnoitering Filipino attitudes to sex and marriage and producing/coordinating media and communications campaigns -- particularly the Enter-Educate approaches -- in support of the Philippine Family Planning Program (PFPP).33   Because it is a private academic institution, JHU provides ample cover for US Embassy officials to "plausibly deny" having anything to do with controversial IEC operations. It is common knowledge, however, that JHU and USAID operatives regularly meet to coordinate their "assistance" to the PFPP.


1993 PHILIPPINE NATIONAL COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN (NCC-93). Dr Juan Flavier was an alumnus of JHU-CCP. When he took charge of the Philippine health department, he was furnished with NCC-93, which was the cornerstone of the "intensive series of activities" launched by the Philippine Family Planning Program (PFPP) for 1993. This was provided, of course, by Pat Coleman of JHU-CCP, who was looking forward to riding the high wave of global population propaganda that was expected to accompany the Cairo Conference the following year.

Coleman is no ordinary "Senior Resident Advisor" -- he is one of two Deputy Directors of JHU-CCP. This means that JHU-CCP has been dispatching its very best agents to re-engineer the traditional pro-life/pro-family culture of the Philippines. Coleman holds office in the Department of Health compound, on the 2nd Floor of Building 25. His work today on the "family planning" campaign is uncannily analogous to Colonel Lansdale's counterinsurgency and FCAO psywar operations in the early 1950s. Today, Coleman works through Filipino cut-outs and NGO subcontractors, led by Campaigns, Inc. Social Marketing for Contraception (SoMarC) is handled by SOMARC.34  

Budgetted at 160 million pesos, the aim of Coleman's NCC-93, and was to improve the image of:
(a)
(b)
(c)
the concept of family planning;
service/information providers; and
contraceptive methods.
35

NCC-93 had four components, namely:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
a media campaign;
a public relations campaign;
an intensive interpersonal communication campaign in 10 local government units (LGUs);
an Enter-Educate campaign.

The NCC-93 Media Campaign was launched in three phases. Phase One was launched on August 2, 1993 in Malacañang Palace, with the themeline: "Kung sila'y mahal n'yo, magplano"; Phase Two was launched mid-October, to clean the image of health workers; Phase Three was launched in January 1994, to announce the "safety and effectiveness" of artificial contraceptives.

The NCC-93 Public Relations Campaign was launched to build a groundswell for the media campaign. This was done through a series of news releases and press conferences. The key objective was "to show that PFPP has a broad spectrum of support among Filipinos". Organizations were contacted to secure their support, to prove that the PFPP is the "will of the people". The PR campaign targetted close to 2,000 companies, factories, civic groups, professional organizations, NGOs, GOs, trade unions, workers' organizations and prominent celebrities -- in both national and local levels. All these targets were encouraged (and some were funded) to conduct their own activities to celebrate and prepare for the affair in Malacañang.

The NCC-93 LGU Campaign began in mid-October, coinciding with Phase Two of the Media Campaign. Ten LGUs -- four cities and six provinces -- were targetted: Baguio City, Quezon City, Iloilo City, Davao City, Pangasinan Province, Laguna Province, Cebu Province, Davao del Sur Province, Surigao del Sur Province, and South Cotabato Province.

The NCC-93 "Enter-Educate" Campaign had the following components:
(1)
(2)
(3)

(4)
TV Sit-Com. Medical setting to convey health -- principally family planning -- messages;
Radio Drama Series. Same setting.
Commercial Feature Film. On population and environment; involve DENR & NGOs; Rudy Fernandez
committed to lead role; funding from local producer, USAID, and IDRC.
36
Pop Songs. On family planning from adolescent point of view; recorded by Geneva Cruz. 37

After this battery of propaganda, the NCC-93 briefing paper has the nerve to say that "the PFPP will be fulfilling its obligation of providing Filipino couples with the information needed for them to make an informed choice about their reproductive options".38  

This was just the tip of the iceberg. Aside from JHU, there are other foreign agencies and institutional covers that are operating with apparent autonomy, but following the same lines, moving on from IEC to motivation, and finally to actual distribution and surgical services.


COVERT RESOURCES IN AID OF DEMOGRAPHIC WAR. Futurist Alvin Toffler considered the national intelligence services as organizations born during the Second Wave era. After the Cold War ground to a halt in the summer of 1990, he opined that "such organizations are just as obsolete in intelligence as they are in the economy. Exactly like General Motors or IBM, the world's major intelligence manufacturers are going through an identity crisis, desperately trying to figure out ... what business they are really in. And like the corporate dinosaurs, they are being forced to question their basic missions and markets." He revealed that ...

 

"... a new breed of radical critics is springing up determined not to destroy intelligence but to recast the concept in Third Wave terms. The very notion of 'national security,' which these institutions claimed to serve, is being broadened to include not simply military but economic, diplomatic, and even ecological components.
          A former member of the NSC staff, John L Peterson says that the US should use its intelligence and its military forces "to help the world deal with problems like hunger, disaster, and pollution that can throw desperate populations into violent conflict. ... As the security market moves and broadens, new 'products' will be required to cover new segments."
39  

The term "security market" is disturbing, considering that free market forces include supply and demand, and advertising is the art of creating a demand. This would mean, for example, that if there were no demand for arms or contraceptives, then covert operations can be used to create those demands.

The use of clandestine resources for population control today would not be as incredible to us, if we knew that since the end of the Cold War, intelligence services have found themselves in such identity doldrums and were in search of some righteous cause to support in order to justify their existence and budgets. And what better global campaign to support than environmental issues which impinge on national security? And so, today the "enemy" is no longer the USSR; it is not even Chinese communism, since the Chinese seem fast becoming more capitalist than the Trilateral Commission40 could imagine; the enemy that the intelligence community has been made to perceive is native population growth in resource-rich LDCs. Thus, NSSM 200 had, in its time, listed -- in order of priority -- thirteen nations as prime targets: India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Mexico, Indonesia, Brazil, the Philippines, Thailand, Egypt, Turkey, Nigeria, Colombia.41  

The tactic of choice that had been specified in NSSM 200 -- 16 years before the collapse of Communism -- was psychological warfare:

 

The beliefs, ideologies and misconceptions displayed by many nations at Bucharest indicate more forcefully than ever the need for extensive education of the leaders of many governments. ... Approaches for leaders of individual countries must be designed in the light of their current beliefs and to meet their special concerns.42  

This tactic that the US, the UK, and the developed nations have taken seriously is leading the Northern Bloc squarely into the Third Wave -- the age of information -- where power and supremacy would be based on knowledge, and competition would inevitably involve high technology43 combined with craftiness, cunning, and whenever necessary, deception and "leverage".

Complex ethical battles lay ahead, particularly in relation to the legal ownership and copyrights of human genetic information obtained through advanced biotechnologies. In the meantime, the demographic propaganda war rages unabated.


1996 PHILIPPINE NATIONAL COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN (NCC-96).44   To allay fears about the side effects of artificial contraceptive methods, the Department of Health has embarked on a P7-million NCC for 1996. The campaign, aired over national and provincial television and radio stations, started December 1, 1996, coinciding with the launching of the Catholic Church's tri-annual preparation for the Jubilee Year 2000. The DOH campaign is supported by the JHU-CCP.

Aimed at educating couples on the "effectiveness and safety of available artificial birth control methods, the campaign was based on a focus group discussion (FGD) among 30 women and 30 men from Manila, Bulacan, and Batangas. The study, conducted by an unnamed private firm for the health department, allegedly showed that the fear of possible side effects of "modern" methods of family planning has prevented couples from using such methods. It was also used as the basis for the Family Planning NCC-96, which urges couples to consult health personnel for correct information and advice on managing their families. The FGD report showed women were apprehensive of the IUD more than any other artificial method.


THE "PROFIT PROJECT": FUND SOURCING FROM "BLOCKED ASSETS". A recent development in family planning operations relevant to FP communications is the tapping of new fund sources. The USAID, together with international financial institutions will be tapping "blocked assets". Blocked assets are profits generated by transnational corporations operating in developing nations whose laws prohibit the transfer of money outside the country. As early as 1992, the USAID had announced that estimated corporate blocked assets overseas amount to $200 billion.

USAID had contracted the services of the giant accounting firm Deloitte and Touche to act as mediator with transnational corporations and to negotiate deals that would turn blocked assets into "private" contributions for family planning in host countries. The USAID-D&T contract is called the "PROFIT Project". The contract document notes that --

 

... multinational corporations have large amounts of blocked funds, profits which they cannot repatriate. These funds are generally held in bank accounts at low rates of taxable interest; it may appeal to some of the larger companies to donate them to a charitable cause in the host country and claim a deduction in their country of origin.

The document also notes that the corporations may also be enticed by credits for parent companies in the US:

 

The contractor shall investigate the possible provision of mixed credits throught he Export-Import Bank to private US companies for population-related investments.

The Virginia-based Summa Foundation was created to manage the money generated by the PROFIT Project. In the Philippines, it is working with several private sector agencies to promote for-profit family planning services and "increase the use of modern family planning methods". The country representative of PROFIT in the Philippines is Mr John Dioquino.45  


END NOTES
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1 Karl H Peschke, Christian Ethics: Moral Theology in the Light of Vatican II (Vol.II, Special Moral Theology (Alcester, Warwickshire: C Goodcleafe Neale Ltd, 1985), pp. 275 ff.
2 Even Jesus Christ was executed for the sake of the nation (cf. Jn 11:50).
3 Lewin's obsession was to apply psychological theories. He is known to be the father of field theory and coined the term "Group Dynamics". As a social psychologist, he was consulted by the Allied air forces regarding the choice of targets for the greatest psychological impact.
4 Tolman advanced a general theory of action integrating psychology, psychoanalysis, economics, and sociology. He is known for his works "Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men" (1932) and "Drives Toward War" (1942).
5 The Tavistock Clinic/Institute was developed as the psywar center for the royal family and British intelligence. Formerly called "Tavistock Institute of Human and International Relations", today, the "TI" calls itself the "Tavistock Institute of Human Relations". It presents itself as "an independent not-for-profit organisation which seeks to combine research in the social sciences with professional practice" ... "with no subsidies from the government or other sources". Its "action research orientation places it between, but not in, the worlds of academia and consultancy; and its range of disciplines include anthropology, economics, organisational behaviour, political science, psychoanalysis, psychology and sociology". This explains the skill and dexterity of British foreign service over the Americans in local inculturation. See separate links on the UK and US intel/psywar systems.
6 Karl von Clausewitz, On War, Chapter 1.
7 Sun Tzu, The Art of War -- Chapter III: The Sheathed Sword, as edited by James Clavell (New York: Dell Publishing, 1988), p. 15.
8 Alvin and Heidi Toffler's division of the history of civilization in terms of three successive "waves", best serves as our framework for understanding the geopolitics of our time. These in summary are:
FIRST WAVE
SECOND WAVE
THIRD WAVE
> the Agrarian Age. Land was the basis of power.
> the Industrial Age. Technology and land were the bases of power.
> the Information Age. Knowledge and technology are/will be the bases of power.
9 San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1988.
10 Planned social change; the idea that governments can shape and manage key features of society, in much the same way as the economy is managed, guided by on social indicators and reports on social trends. Ethical and political protests are often raised against social engineering measures, depending on the nature and extent of social manipulation.
11 This is discernible in what in population control parlance is called Information-Education-Communication/Motivation (IEC/M). Consistently with the practice of Group Dynamics, the aim of IEC/M campaigns is to build social cohesiveness toward the goal of depopulation by developing social norms and exerting social pressures; and by rewarding conformity and rejecting deviance from the norms.
12 Recent proof of this is the claim made by leaders of Germany, Italy, and Japan that their nations did not have fair access to raw materials, markets, and capital investment areas, all of which were necessary for their economic health. They argued that their nations were the victims of economic warfare (protective tariffs, managed currencies, and cut-throat competition, etc) and that they had been left behind in the race for economic self-sufficiency and a favorable balance of trade. They made it plain that they would fight, if necessary, for better economic status. We know, however, that closely linked to the economic motives were megalomanic visions and ambitions arising from their respective national/racial superiority complexes: Aryanism, Roman imperialism, and the bushido spirit.
13 It is interesting to note how this has been noted today by no less than Pope John Paul II, in his encyclical, Evangelium Vitæ (par.12): "... a life which would require greater acceptance, love and care is considered useless, or held to be an intolerable burden, and is therefore rejected in one way or another. A person who, because of illness, handicap or, more simply, just by existing, compromises the well-being or life-style of those who are more favored tends to be looked upon as an enemy to be resisted or eliminated."
14 The JHU/ORO produced the standard textbooks for training in psychological warfare operations, eg, The Nature of Psychological Warfare (1953), Target Analysis and Media in Propaganda Audiences Abroad (1954), A Psychological Warfare Case Book (1958), The Weapon on the Wall: Rethinking Psychological Warfare (1958). Cf. Franklin Mark Osanka (ed), Modern Guerrilla Warfare (Washington DC: George Washington University, Human Resources Research Office; 1962).
15 WE Daugherty and M Janowitz. A Psychological Warfare Case Book. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, 1958), p. 2.
16 Colonel Edward G Lansdale (US Air Force) earned his title as the acknowledged authority on the use of psychological warfare for counterinsurgency during his assignments in the Philippines and Vietnam. In September of 1950, as CIA Station Chief under cover of JUSMAG, he developed psy-ops for military and paramilitary use during the Anti-Huk campaign, and established the Filipino Civil Affairs Office as a base for psywar operations in the civilian (social-political-economic) setting. He was, after all, a former advertising man, and no stranger to the use of market research, motivation techniques, media, and deception. In 1954, he was assigned to head the CIA's South Vietnam operations to bolster the regime of Ngo Dinh Diem. The Philippines was the US principal laboratory for psywar R&D, then Vietnam. In his memoirs, Lansdale admits to having made and controlled President Ramon Magsaysay.
17 Eg: totalitarian governments and correction systems. Today, the Special Operations Research Office (SORO) is based at the American University in Washington, D.C. As a center for military-sponsored research on the human dimension of counterinsurgency, SORO produces reports profiling the politics, religious belief, and other social forces at play in countries that is of interest to the Pentagon. Interesting papers written by SORO consultant and democide scholar, Professor RJ Rummel, are worth reading: "Democide vs genocide. Which is what?", "War isn't this century's biggest killer", "Power predicts democide", "Why does power kill?". For a better appreciation of the pragmatic history of psychology in America, see the Addenda of A Chronology of Noteworthy Events in American Psychology by WR Street, Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association (1994).
18 Former Health Secretary Juan Flavier demonstrated his expertise as a propagandist in this fashion, but it can also be argued that birth control and "population management" programs in the Philippines and in the Third World certainly do have elements of psychological warfare and brainwashing.
19 Cf. Naisbitt & Aburdene, Megatrends 2000, p. 35.
20 Megatrends 2000, p. 37.
21 Just as the aim of Coca-Cola marketing was to batter the Filipino psyche to habitually buy and drink Coke instead of water or natural fruit juice, the aim of population IEC and social marketing is to make Filipinos purchase -- ie, not merely accept free supplies- and use contraceptives by the year 2000.
22 The complete title of National Security Study Memorandum (NSSM) No. 200 is: "Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for US Security and Overseas Interests". This is also known among demographic and intelligence circles as the "Kissinger Report" (See separate Executive Summary). The decision memorandum authorizing its implementation was NSDM 314, signed by national security adviser Brent Scowcroft.
23 NSSM 200, Executive Summary, Par.30, p. 14.
24 LDC: Less Developed Country.
25 NSSM 200, p. 106. For "leverage" read "coercion" or "force".
26 NSSM 200, p. 114. The qualifying phrase "whenever possible" is worrisome, as it manifests the basic disposition of the US Govt to get it done by whatever means. This raises the question: what happens if it is not taken up by the LDC's own leaders? The answer is plain and simple "leverage".
27 "Family planning seeks to influence human behavior. Motivation is therefore an important part of any approach to the population problem. This requires understanding of cultural, social, psychological and economic forces. ... To accomplish behavioral changes and provide contraceptive methods, a substantial, effective and well-organized family planning program is necessary." (Cf. USAID "Policy Determination: Population and Family Planning Programs", November 1967). This would guide the US Congress approval of the use of USAID funds for family planning. This could be considered the immediate basis of IEC, which is the "friendly", widespread, "civilian" version of psychological warfare.
28 Philip M Hauser. "World Population: Retrospect and Prospect". In Rapid Population Growth: Consequences and Policy Implications. US Gov't National Academy of Sciences. (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1971), p.119. The recommendations of NSSM 200 echoes this.
29 Former Health Secretary Dr Juan M Flavier acquired his communications and propaganda skills from this very institution, which granted him a degree in Public Health Communications in 1969. He then became president of the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) and became first vice-president of the US-based International Institute for Rural Reconstruction (IIRR). From 1978 until 1992, he was connected exclusively with IIRR. His career path to the Health Department was well-studied, including directorship of the Family Planning Organization of the Philippines (FPOP) -- the local affiliate of International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). He is married to Alma Susana Aguila, daughter of a former governor of La Union. She is a member of the Ellinwood Church; he is a baptized Catholic (born on June 23, 1935 and named after John the Baptist), but he presently practices an eclectic, synchretistic worship.
30 Piotrow, a true pioneer, has been at the forefront of using communications to enhance population and family planning programs since 1965, when she became the Executive Director of the Population Crisis Committee. She then initiated the Population Information Program (PIP) in 1972 to supply the appropriate information to professionals and policymakers. The official journal of PIP was Population Reports. In 1972, she initiated the Population Communication Services (PCS), offering training and technical/financial assistance to communicators in 65 countries, helping them to develop effective IEC programs for family planning, reproductive health [read: contraception, abortion, sterilization], and related activities. Both the PIP and the PCS are supported by the USAID.
31 Cf. Internet, CCP Home Page -- http://www.jhuccp.org.
32 Rimon is an advocate for the use of mass media and entertainment to promote behavior change. A pioneer in development communication, he is an expert in designing national communication strategies. Lozare taught mass communications at the University of the Philippines, and has developed the computerized training program "Strategic Communication Planning Exercise" (SCOPE) for JHU-CCP.
33 "Enter-Educate" is short for entertainment-education, which capitalizes on showbiz celebrities and entertainment as a medium for population propaganda.
34 Campaigns Inc is located in Valero Tower, Makati. SOMARC is based in Townes Building, 916 Pasay Road, Makati. To soften its jarring impact on the public, its name has been changed to Social Marketing for Change.
35 NCC-93 briefing paper.
36 International Development Research Center (Canada).
37 The subliminal impact on the unsuspecting artist is known among teeny-boppers. Cruz had the sad fortune of getting pregnant outside of wedlock during the filming of a local movie. Fortunately, she did not choose abortion.
38 Italics ours.
39 Cf. Alvin and Heidi Toffler. War and Anti-War. (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1993), p. 155.
40 The economic alliance forged in 1973 between the US, the EU and Japan in defense of common economic interests against developing countries. The Trilateral Commission served as a catalyst in shifting the geopolitical polarization from "East vs West" to "North vs South".
41 NSSM 200, p. 15. Population control and propaganda is thoroughly endorsed by the Philippine Government as crucial for the national security of the Philippines. This is because National Security Adviser Jose T Almonte is thoroughly soaked in the principles underlying NSSM 200 & NSDM 314. (Ref. "Population Planning and National Security" by JT Almonte, published 1994 jointly by POPCOM & the Rafael M Salas Foundation, Inc).
42 NSSM 200, p. 96. The Futures Group, a private think-tank funded by USAID, was one of the first organizations to specialize in the use of computer interfaces in psychological manipulations of corporate executives and political leaders. In 1981, it pioneered the RAPID program (Resources for Awareness of Population Impacts on Development) for the State Department, which used computer-driven graphics to brainwash select developing sector leaders into supporting IMF conditionalities and population control programs. It was also involved in extensive profiling of the US citizenry for major multinationals.
43 With special emphasis on "IT" or Information Technology -- without excluding, however, birth control and other biotechnologies. See separate paper on GATT-WTO.
44 Philippine Star, 05 December 1996, pp. 1 & 7.
45 For further information on USAID activities in the Philippines, see http://www.usaid-ph.gov/phn. Mr Dioquino holds office at the Filipino Merchant's Building, dela Rosa corner Bolaños, Makati.



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